The Guardian August 22, 2001

Middle East: A proposal for a negotiated peace

The following is a proposal for a peace agreement from, the Israeli 
peace bloc Gush Shalom for a peace agreement. It was first published in 
Hebrew in Haaretz on August 10.

Now, more than at any other time, the struggle for peace must not stop. The 
following declaration of principles is a proposal for joint Israeli-
Palestinian discussion. It should not be considered a take-it-or-leave-it 

We went into details in order to express our conviction that all the issues 
at stake  the components of the conflict  can be resolved. Not by 
diktats, not by an overbearing master-and-servant attitude, but by 
negotiations between equals.

The government and the army leadership are leading us into a hell of blood 
and fire. We call upon all peace-seekers in Israel to unite for the future 
of the two peoples of this country, Jewish Israelis and Palestinian Arabs.

The country has given birth to us as twins.

Proposed Peace Agreement

Between the State of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organisation, the 
Representative of the Palestinian People.

Whereas both parties wish to end the historical conflict between them, 
establish peace and bring about a historical conciliation between the two 

And whereas both parties wish to base the peace on the principles of self-
determination, mutual respect, justice and equality;

And whereas both parties acknowledge the principle of "two states for two 

And whereas both parties accept UN resolutions 242, 338 and 194 as the 
basis for a solution and regard the implementation of the agreement below 
as the full realisation of these resolutions;

It is agreed by both parties:

Section 1:

The End of the Occupation

Within one year, the Israeli occupation, in all its manifestations and 
functions, in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, including Arab East 
Jerusalem, will come to an end.

Section 2:

The State of Palestine

Within one year, the independent and sovereign State of Palestine will be 
established on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, including Arab East 
Jerusalem, the part of the Dead Sea that borders the Palestinian shore and 
the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip.

Section 3:


The border between the State of Israel and the State of Palestine will be 
the cease-fire lines as they existed on June 4th 1967 (hereinafter: the 
Green Line), unless stipulated otherwise in this agreement.

The State of Palestine will have full sovereign control of all its border 
crossings on land, sea and air.

Both parties wish that the border between them should be open, with 
unrestricted passage of people and goods, within the framework of the 
economic and border-passing arrangements to be agreed upon by the parties.

Section 4:


Both parties acknowledge the uniqueness of the City of Jerusalem and 
declare their intention to preserve it as a single urban unit, open to all.

The Arab neighbourhoods of the city, according to the map attached, will be 
an integral part of the State of Palestine and will serve as its capital. 
These areas of the city will be connected to each other and to the State of 
Palestine as a single, continuous, territorial entity.

The Jewish neighbourhoods of the city, according to the map attached, will 
be an integral part of the State of Israel and will serve as its capital. 
These areas of the city will be connected to each other and to the State of 
Israel as a single, continuous, territorial entity.

The Jewish quarter of the Old City will be part of the State of Israel and 
will be attached to its territory. The Muslim, Christian and Armenian 
quarters of the Old City will be part of the State of Palestine.

There will be no barriers or obstacles preventing unrestricted passage 
between the two parts of the City. Both parties will establish border 
checkpoints, if they so decide, at the entrances/exits of the City.

The municipality of the Palestinian Jerusalem and the municipality of the 
Israeli Jerusalem will establish a joint council, based on the principle of 
equality, to manage the shared municipal services.

The council will be headed by the chairman of the council and his/her 
deputy, one of whom will be Israeli and the other Palestinian. They will 
rotate their positions after two years. The first assignment will be 
determined by lot.

Section 5:

Holy Sites

Both parties acknowledge the uniqueness of the Holy Sites and their 
importance to the believers of the three monotheistic religions.

The area of the Haram al-Sharif (Temple Mount) will be part of the State of 

The Western Wall (the part also called "the Wailing Wall") will be part of 
the State of Israel.

All archaeological or other excavations in the area of the Haram al-Sharif 
(the Temple Mount), the Western Wall or in their immediate vicinity shall 
be undertaken by mutual consent.

Section 6:

Exchange of Territory

Exchange of territories can be effected by agreement between both parties.

Section 7:

Extra-territorial Roads

A highway will be constructed between the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and 
it will belong to the State of Palestine. The highway will not be connected 
to the Israeli road network at any point and will pass either above or 
below it.

Section 8:


Both parties have the right to national and personal security.

Both parties renounce the use of force and the threat of force against each 

Both parties undertake to combat terrorism and terrorist initiatives 
organised in one state against the other, its residents and institutions.

Both parties undertake to prevent the entry of any foreign military force 
into their territories. Any contravention of this section by either state 
will grant the other state the right to take any measures required for 

The State of Palestine undertakes to refrain from arming itself with heavy 
offensive weapons for 25 years. This obligation will become void if peace 
treaties are signed between Israel and the Arab states.

Both parties will come to an agreement regarding the usage of each other's 
air space.

Section 9:

The Settlements

Residents of the settlements located in territory that is to become part of 
the State of Palestine will be evacuated from the territory before the end 
of the Israeli occupation.

The settlements will be transferred intact to the Palestinian authorities, 
without any damage inflicted on buildings or other immovable property. The 
property evacuated by the settlers will be considered part of Israel's 
contribution to the rehabilitation of the Palestinian refugees (as 
specified heretofore in section 11.)

Section 10:


The water resources of the entire land between the river Jordan and the 
Mediterranean belong to both parties.

A Supreme Israeli-Palestinian Committee will be appointed and will be 
responsible for water resources and distribution. Water will be allocated 
justly and equally, on the basis of the numerical proportion of residents 
in both states.

Both parties will cooperate in projects for the development of additional 
water resources, such as desalination of seawater.

Section 11:


Both parties agree that the human tragedy of the Palestinians must be 
resolved by a moral, just, practicable and agreed-upon solution that takes 
into consideration the character and essential needs of the two states.

Israel acknowledges its central responsibility for the creation of this 
tragedy during the course of the wars of 1948 and 1967. 

Both parties will establish a "truth commission" of historians  Israeli, 
Palestinian and international  that will examine the precise causes that 
lead to the creation of the problem in all its aspects, and will issue an 
objective, conclusive report within three years. This report will be 
incorporated into the schoolbooks of both states.

Israel acknowledges the principle of the Right of Return as a basic human 

According to this right, every refugee will be accorded the choice between 
compensation and permanent settlement in another country, return to the 
State of Palestine or return to Israeli territory, according to the 
following principles:

1. In order to heal the historical wound and as an act of justice, Israel 
will allow the return into its territory of a certain number of refugees, 
which will be decided by agreement. The returnees will be allowed back 
under a reasonable annual quota within a time limit not exceeding 10 years. 
2. (2) A generous level of compensation will be determined for each refugee 
for property that remained in Israel, loss of opportunities, etc. The 
compensation will be paid by an international fund. Israel will contribute 
an appropriate portion to this fund, taking into account the value of 
Palestinian property that remained in Israel.

(3) Israel will use its influence with the international fund so that the 
Palestinian state will be enabled to absorb refugees who chose to return to 
it, as well as refugees currently residing in the West Bank and the Gaza 
Strip, by providing suitable housing and employment opportunities.

Section 12:

Implementation of UN Resolutions

Upon full implementation of sections 1 to 9, both parties will present a 
formal joint statement to the UN Security Council, declaring that both 
parties consider resolutions 242 and 338 fully realised. 

Upon full implementation of section 11, both parties will present a 
declaration to the UN that resolution 194 has been realised 

Section 13:

Differences of Opinion

An agreed-upon international committee will monitor the implementation of 
this agreement and act as arbitrator in the case of differences of opinion.

Section 14:

End of the Conflict

Full implementation of this agreement will constitute the end of the 
conflict between Israel and Palestine.

Back to index page